Veliko otkriće baca novo svjetlo na život neandertalaca

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 ‘Nakon ovog teško se može reći da su bili išta manje kognitivno sposobni od modernog čovjeka!’

Ferrari Press Agency
String 1
13/04/20
Ref 11625
Picture credit: C2RMF
Neanderthals were able to make a rudimentary string using tree fibres,, according to a major new discovery.It once again shows that these extinct humans were not the lumbering brutes they were originally painted as.Scientists working in the south of France found a small Neanderthal cord fragment dating back 41,000 years.It’s the oldest evidence of fibre technology in the archaeological record.Prior to this discovery, the oldest direct evidence of textile and cord technology came from the Ohalo II site in Israel. These were 19,000 years old and linked to modern humans. They were made from several fibres that were given a clockwise twist.The new was find at the Abri du Maras site in southern France.Archaeologists had previously found evidence of Neanderthal textile use in the form of single twisted fibres, but it wasn’t enough for scientists to be sure. The newly discovered cord fragment is different because it’s composed of multiple fibres twisted into yarn that were then twisted back to form a cord.
OPS: The cord fragment taken by digital microscopy (the fragment is approximately 6.2 mm long and 0.5 mm wide).
Picture supplied by Ferrari, Image: 513737427, License: Rights-managed, Restrictions: , Model Release: no, Credit line: C2RMF/Centre de recherche et de restauration des musées de France / Ferrari / Profimedia

Komad 50 tisuća godina starog konopa – najstariji otkriveni primjerak u povijesti – pronađen u špilji u Francuskoj dodatno je osporio ideju da su neandertalci bili kognitivno inferiorni u odnosu na modernog čovjeka, piše BBC.

Studija objavljena u časopisu Scientific Reports tvrdi da je sićušan, troslojni komadić konopa napravljen od kore drveta uočen na kamenom alatu koji je pronađen na lokalitetu Abri du Maras.

Spomenuti komadić konopa navodi na zaključak da su Neandertalci razumjeli koncepte kao što su parovi, kompleti i brojevi. Ispletena vlakna čine osnovu odjeće, torbi, mreža pa čak i brodova.

Već se zna da su Neandertalci, podvrsta pračovjeka koja je izumrla prije približno 40 tisuća godina, pravili katran od kore drveta breze, umjetničke predmete i ogrlice od školjki. Također, znali su i kontrolirati vatru, živjeli su u skloništima, bili su umješni lovci velikih životinja, a čak su i s namjerom mrtve zakapali u grobove.

Arheolozi i paleontolozi inače na nalazištima poput francuskog Abri du Marasa pronalaze samo ostatke životinja i kamenih alata. Materijali koji su uništivi i razgradivi obično se ne pronalaze.

No skupina istraživača iz Francuske, Sjedinjenih Američkih Država i Španjolske otkrila je komad konopa koje bio zalijepljen za donji dio šest centimetara dugačkog kamenog alata.

Ferrari Press Agency
String 1
13/04/20
Ref 11625
Picture credit: Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle
Neanderthals were able to make a rudimentary string using tree fibres,, according to a major new discovery.It once again shows that these extinct humans were not the lumbering brutes they were originally painted as.Scientists working in the south of France found a small Neanderthal cord fragment dating back 41,000 years.It’s the oldest evidence of fibre technology in the archaeological record.Prior to this discovery, the oldest direct evidence of textile and cord technology came from the Ohalo II site in Israel. These were 19,000 years old and linked to modern humans. They were made from several fibres that were given a clockwise twist.The new was find at the Abri du Maras site in southern France.Archaeologists had previously found evidence of Neanderthal textile use in the form of single twisted fibres, but it wasn’t enough for scientists to be sure. The newly discovered cord fragment is different because it’s composed of multiple fibres twisted into yarn that were then twisted back to form a cord.
OPS: Detail of the cord fragment showing twisted fibres, observed by scanning electron microscopy.
Picture supplied by Ferrari, Image: 513737435, License: Rights-managed, Restrictions: , Model Release: no, Credit line: Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle / Ferrari / Profimedia

Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle / Ferrari / Profimedia

 

Konop, za koji se vjeruje da je napravljen od unutarnje kore drveta iz skupine četinjača, bio je dugačak 6,2 milimetra i širok 0,5 milimetara.

Tri skupine vlakana razdvojene su i zavinute u smjeru kazaljke na satu u strunu. Nakon što su zavinute, te su strune u smjeru suprotnom od kretanja kazaljke na satu uvijene u konop.

Studija je zaključila da je tako proizveden konop dokaz da su neandertalci posjedovali detaljno ekološko razumijevanje drveća te da su znali kako ih pretvoriti u drukčije funkcionalne supstance. Konop također sugerira da su imali kognitivno razumijevanje numeracije te da su u određenim kontekstima imali operativno pamćenje. Taj se zaključak temelji na činjenici da je proizvodnja konopa zahtijevala istovremeno praćenje više sekvencijalnih operacija.

“Ako se u obzir uzmu najnovije spoznaje o neandertalskoj umjetnosti i tehnologiji, teško se može smatrati da su neandertalci u kognitivnom smislu bili išta manje sposobni od modernog čovjeka”, stoji u studiji.   Piše